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Those with gluten trouble should also be cautious with other grains because of proteins known as prolamins .
- Prolamins are proteins that exist in the seeds of cereal grains.
- Gluten consists of a prolamin and a glutelin.
- Prolamins are storage proteins, and they are the "hardware stores" of the wheat structure that distribute amino acids central to the plant’s development.
- Glutelin is the "glue" that holds these hardware stores together.
Wheat gluten itself consists of the prolamin, gliadin and the glutelin glutenin.
Gliadin stimulates zonulin, the traffic cop of the gut lining, to allow it to pass into our digestive tract largely undigested and interacting with tissue transglutaminase (tTG), an enzyme found throughout the body.
Tissue transglutaminase is a critical part of how the body functions, and specifically, how the tight junctions in the microvilli (think hairy fingers) in our gut are formed.
When tTG interacts with gliadin, it creates antibodies -- enzyme that is such an important part of our body is now bad -- body attacks itself.
Celiac disease is one of the most well-known gluten-related diseases, and those with the disease are advised to avoid more than wheat.
- Roughly 1% of people have celiac disease
Besides wheat, the following grains contain prolamins :
- Grain Prolamin Protein
- Wheat Gliadin
- Oats Avenin
- Corn Zein
- Rye Secalin
- Sorghum Karirin
Not all prolamins are believed to trigger celiac disease, the main ones are those from wheat, barley, and rye. Oats can be a trigger for some.
So how do prolamins and gluten relate?
- The prolamin gliadin in wheat is the main protein that is believed to trigger celiacs, and gliadin is one of the proteins that makes up gluten
Prolamins can cause more problems than just celiacs disease. For those who react negatively to them, they can cause:
- Brain fog
- Joint pain
- Thyroid issues
- Chronic inflammation
- Increase intestinal permeability
Many of the negative effects are due to a proinflammatory immune response to prolamins. In studies it was found that an increased production of proinflammatory cytokines occurred for both celiac patients as well as healthy controls, however the impact was greater for those with celiac disease.
Studies have confirmed that gluten-sensitivity exists, and many who experience IBS have gluten sensitivity. Case Study: In a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled study on 34 patients with IBS and without celiac disease, it was found that those who followed the gluten-free diet experienced fewer IBS symptoms, pain, fatigue, and bloating as compared with those who consumed the gluten diet.
- 34 patients
- 6 weeks of a gluten-free diet with exception of two bread slices and one muffin per day. Either with gluten or gluten-free
- The mechanism was not discovered as tests did not generate significant differences between the groups, however the reported symptoms were significantly less for those without gluten
If you have a sensitivity to gluten, it is a good idea to replace grains with starchy vegetables, such as sweet potatoes and beets. For everyone, it is a good idea to cut grains out for a week and reintroduce them one at a time to see if you have any sensitivity.
Prolamins: signal same antibody as gluten because so similar -- more on promelains
Wheat starch, gliadin, and the gluten-free diet https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/1
The dietary intake of wheat and other cereal grains and their role in inflammation https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/arti
Gluten causes gastrointestinal symptoms in subjects without celiac disease https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/2
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Grain Brain: The Surprising Truth about Wheat, Carbs, and Sugar – David Perlmutter
In his latest book, neurologist Perlmutter (The Better Brain Book) declares war on a common foodstuff, attributing a bewilderingly wide assortment of maladies to the consumption of gluten, a substance found in bread and other stock foods. Contrasting modern humans against idealized humans of the distant past, Perlmutter concludes that the former, whose average life expectancy at birth is about twice that of their Paleolithic ancestors, have gone off the proper track.
He addresses the churlish objection that gluten has been part of the human diet for many millennia by firmly asserting that recent changes to crops have transformed a once-safe food into a terrible scourge. The book features health advice, a number of gluten-free recipes, and details on some relevant case studies. Lauded by such nonconsensus pundits as Mehmet Oz and William Davis, Perlmutter offers readers a comfortably simplistic model for thinking about carbs. Agent: Bonnie Solow, Solow Literary Enterprises.
Wheat Belly: Lose the Wheat, Lose the Weight, and Find Your Path Back to Health – William Davis
Dr. William Davis is responsible for exposing the incredible nutritional blunder being made by "official" health agencies: Eat more "healthy whole grains." The wheat of today is different from the wheat of 1960, thanks to extensive genetics manipulations introduced to increase yield-per-acre. Founder of the international online program for heart health, Track Your Plaque, his experience in thousands of participants uncovered how foods made of wheat actually CAUSED heart disease and heart attack. Eliminating wheat yielded results beyond everyone's expectations: substantial weight loss, correction of cholesterol abnormalities, relief from inflammatory diseases like arthritis, better mood--benefits that led to prevention of heart disease and diabetes, but a lot more benefits in other areas of health.