Similar to veins and arteries, but lymph vessels are much smaller, and instead of bringing blood throughout the body, the lymphatic system carries a liquid called lymph. It circulates throughout the body, bathing our cells, providing them with nutrients and oxygen and also picking up unwanted substances like, bacteria, and filters them out of the body. In addition to its cleansing functions, the lymph is also the body's major fat-processing system – allows the absorption of fats and fat-soluble vitamins from the digestive system, followed by transport of these fats to your blood circulation. Lymph carries fatty acids to the liver, the main fat burning organ, for further processing and metabolism. This causes fat to accumulate in the body, especially in the abdomen, as well as other negative signs of a sluggish lymphatic system. (1,2,3)
Exercise – Upper/Lower Splits
The lymphatic system has no heart to keep lymph moving and is instead moved by exercise, specifically muscle expansion and contraction. As muscles tighten, lymph vessels are squeezed and lymph is pushed along and filtered through lymph nodes on its way back to the veins and the heart. The main lymph vessels run up the legs, up the arms and up the torso - the largest groupings are found in the neck, armpits, and groin areas
A study from the Canadian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology (2016) looked at the effect of caffeine on ketone levels The study looked at the addition of 2.5 mg/kg caffeine (equiv. to ca. 1.5-3 cups of coffee w/ ~95 mg/cup) and 5.0 mg/kg caffeine (equiv. to ca. 3-5 cups of coffee w/ ~95 mg/cup) to subjects' breakfast. The lower dose (almost) and the higher dose (more than) doubled the subjects' concentrations of ketone bodies and free fatty acids in the subjects' blood – ketones became more pronounced over time. Should be noted that subjects consumed caffeine pills; caffeine in the form of coffee will work just as effectively, but need to be careful of what additives you are including in your coffee (4)
Because of their shorter length, MCTs are more easily digested and absorbed in the GI tract than LCTs. Once dietary fats are absorbed by the GI the body must then transport it to the liver where it is metabolized to produce energy. MCTs are transported directly from the gastrointestinal tract through the bloodstream to the liver. Fat metabolism occurs in the mitochondria of the liver and the liver then converts these molecules to fatty acids and ketone bodies. MCTs provide immediate energy because they are able to cross the double mitochondrial membrane very rapidly and do not require the presence of carnitine (LCTs require carnitine to enter the mitochondria) (5)
The initial phase of fasting involves a process known as gluconeogenesis, which simply means the creation of new glucose. When there is no endogenous glucose to be found, the body will then seek out other ways of getting energy and begins to adapt to these new conditions – on average, if you don't eat for 10–16 hours, your body will go to its fat stores for energy, and fatty acids called ketones will be released into the bloodstream. The more keto-adapted you become the more ketones you'll successfully utilize. At first, the brain and muscles are quite glucose dependent. But eventually they start to prefer fat for fuel.
1) SEER Training:Introduction to the Lymphatic System. (n.d.). Retrieved from https://training.seer.cancer.gov/anat
2) Functions of the Lymphatic System. (n.d.). Retrieved from https://www.boundless.com/physiology/
3) Lymphatic System | Major Part of the Immune System |. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.lymphatichealth.com/lympha
4) Caffeine intake increases plasma ketones: an acute metabolic study in humans - Canadian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.nrcresearchpress.com/doi/a
5) New Insights into the Utilization of Medium-Chain Triglycerides by the Neonate: Observations from a Piglet Model.(n.d.) Retrieved from http://jn.nutrition.org/content/127/6
6) Intermittent fasting: the science of going without. (n.d.). Retrieved from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/arti
7) Starvation response | Open Access articles | Open Access journals | Conference Proceedings | Editors | Authors |Reviewers | scientific events. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://research.omicsgroup.org/index
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The Art and Science of Low Carbohydrate Living: An Expert Guide to Making the Life-Saving Benefits of Carbohydrate Restriction Sustainable and Enjoyable – Stephen D. Phinney & Jeff S. Volek
In diabetes, if a diabetic person's blood sugars become too high or too low, the body sends very obvious signs of the problem- behavior changes, confusion, seizures, etc. In Alzheimer's disease, however, rather than those acute signals of a problem, the brain's function and structure decline gradually over time.
When a group of researchers reviewed the collections of studies available on Alzheimer's disease and brain function, they noted that a common finding in Alzheimer's disease was the deterioration of the brain's ability to use and metabolize glucose. They compared that decline with cognitive ability, and noted that the decline in glucose processing coincided with, or even preceded, the cognitive declines of memory impairment, word-finding difficulty, behavior changes and more.
Furthermore, scientists determined that as insulin functioning in the brain worsens, not only does the brain's cognitive ability decline, the size and structure of the brain also deteriorate- all things that occur as Alzheimer's isease progresses.
The Art and Science of Low Carbohydrate Performance – Jeff S. Volek, Stephen D. Phinney
A Revolutionary Program to Extend Your Physical and Mental Performance Envelope.
Our recent book 'The Art and Science of Low Carbohydrate Living' was written for health care professionals, championing the benefits of carbohydrate restriction to manage insulin resistance, metabolic syndrome, and type-2 diabetes.
In response, our athlete friends asked "What about us?"
This companion book is our answer, and it could be titled: 'The Art and Science of Avoiding the BONK'.
But actually, it is much much more than that. The keto-adapted athlete benefits from superior fuel flow not only when nearing glycogen depletion, but also during training, recovery, and in response to resistance exercise as well.
"On a well designed ketogenic diet as recommended by Jeff and Steve, I consume up to 4200 Calories per day while maintaining 6-7% body fat. This transformation has increased my power to mass ratio and allows a high level of performance in a range of activities. Equally if not more important is the efficiency with which I operate in every facet of my life. My energy level in the keto-adapted state is constant and nver undulates." Tony Ricci, MS, CSCS, LDN, CISSN, CNS. High Performance Coach/Sports Nutritionist.